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How To Identify Mobility Restrictions Affecting How You Move

Written by: Nick Jack
Category: 2014
on 18 March 2021
Hits: 526

One of the biggest mistakes people make with exercise is neglecting to correct areas of the body lacking mobility. Aggressive physical training cannot change fundamental mobility and stability problems at an effective rate without also introducing a degree of compensation and increased risk of injury. It is impossible to develop strength to your full potential if poor mobility of joints is present. This is why mobility restrictions are the first thing I look during an assessment with a new client and is the main focus in the the initial stages of the program. However, not all people will need to improve mobility for some people may in fact have too much! These people are referred to as hypermobile and there problem is excessive mobility that compromises stability of the joints. In this case they require more stability and strength based exercises to correctly stabilize their joints. The only way to find out this vital information is to complete a thorough mobility assessment to identify areas of concern before you get into the more complex stability and movement assessments that are easily compromised by mobility dysfunctions. In this article I will show you how to complete a basic mobility assessment by yourself to help determine exactly what areas of the body you will need to improve your mobility.

Many times the stretch assessments I use to determine if a joint is lacking flexibility, will also become the best exercise to improve it. This is not always the case as some areas of the body are difficult to work with and require some care with the type of mobility work you use. Sometimes the test is just a great way to measure the effectiveness of your corrective exercise program in terms of mobility, but as an exercise it does very little, and can even aggravate the area.

A classic example of this is the scratch stretch for the shoulders shown in the picture above. This is a great way to measure the flexibility of the internal rotator muscles of the shoulder being the pecs and the latissimus dorsi that often disrupt the stability the joint. However using this test as an exercise to correct the stiffness is not very effective and can often aggravate shoulder conditions. There are better choices of stretches to use for these muscles that will make a bigger difference however they are difficult to measure if they are improving. You can see how a mixture of both is the best way to approach this.

Always remember mobility work is not enough to fully restore things back to normal if that is all you use. You MUST follow up any mobility work instantly with a stability and movement correction in order for the body to understand how to move without the stiffness being required. At the end of each section I will provide a quick link to explain this concept so you can have an idea of what to use.

How to Identify Joints & Muscles That Require Stretching or Mobility Work

Before we jump right into the various tests and exercises it is important to understand the difference between mobility and flexibility.

In simple terms FLEXIBILITY is the capacity of a single joint or muscle to move through its full range of motion. Stretching is specific to a particular movement or joints and is often held for long periods of time or used as a PNF contract relax method.

Whereas MOBILITY refers to freedom of movement. It is not limited to a single joint but a combination of joints and is more movement based as opposed to holding one particular muscle with increased length for a period of time. This is quite confusing to explain at times for this is not limited to just one area but how a combination of several work together. An example would be someone has optimal flexibility at the hip, knee and ankle yet when they squat they lack freedom of movement. This is not a flexibility problem but a mobility and stability problem affecting how they move.

You can read more about this in the article - Understanding mobility flexibility.

Using a combination of the two methods, and more importantly knowing which joints need the right approach is a massive step towards getting out of pain or improving how you move.

Every time you improve flexibility and mobility new opportunities are created to alter and change movement patterns, and increase strength in weak and lazy muscles. For if there is a tight muscle, there is also an opposite, a weak lazy muscle.

The big mistake people make in rehab is trying to strengthen the weak muscles first. Sure they need to be strengthened, but they can never achieve their potential while they lack range of motion, timing and freedom of movement that can only be restored using flexibility and mobility methods. Tight and dominating muscles, also known as Tonic muscles inhibit weak lazy muscles, known as Phasic muscles from firing. This is called muscle inhibition and is a massive problem to contend with for many rehabilitation programs.

The two things I did not include in that detailed article from a few years ago was the specific mobility tests I use from time to time, and also the stability correction that instantly follows it. In this article I will include the various stability tests that will follow up your mobility work. Watch the video below for an explanation of why this is so important.

 

Where Do You Start?

To simplify this process it is useful to have the "joint by joint" approach by Gray Cook and Mike Boyle in the back of your mind as it will make you more focused to look in certain areas that really need mobility. What you will see is that every second joint needs mobility, and the other joints need the exact opposite being stability and strength.

Here is how it works.

  1. Feet - Stability
  2. Ankle - Mobility *
  3. Knee - Stability
  4. Hip - Mobility *
  5. Lumbar Spine - Stability
  6. Thoracic Spine - Mobility *
  7. Scapula - Stability/Mobility
  8. Gleno-Humeral - Mobility/Stability

From this list the big 3 areas we need to target are the ankle, hip, and thoracic spine which I have labelled to see more easily. The scapula and gleno-humeral joint is a bit tricky as it really needs both for it is such a unique joint. Trigger points in the neck and shoulders are often a result of issues at those joints. The ankle, hip and thoracic region are often the areas that contain the most stiffness and this is where a lot of our focus will be.

With my assessment I like to start from the head and move my way down for most upper body and lower back problems, and the exact opposite for lower limb problems by starting at the feet and working my way up the kinetic chain. It is up to you how you prefer to do the assessment, just remember to complete all the tests and never assume anything.

The GOLDEN RULE of Stretching is this: Any muscle that appears tight, or hard to do, will benefit from a stretching exercise or method. If it is not hard to stretch DO NOT STRETCH IT. If you stretch a weakened muscle you will make it weaker.

ONLY STRETCH TIGHT MUSCLES!

Also look for variance between left and right and anything that is lacking range of motion needs to be improved to match the other side. You must strive to be symmetrical across all joints otherwise compensation takes over and faulty patterns emerge.

Let's get started.

1: Neck

These first two stretch tests work well as corrective exercises.

1a: Neck Lateral Flexion Test

  1. Sitting with good posture, hold the end of the bench with your left hand.
  2. Facing your head forward, lay your head to the right and apply slight overpressure with your right hand away from your left shoulder.

Normal = able to tilt head between 24 – 40 degrees
Tight = less than 35 degrees head tilt

1b: Neck Rotation Test

  1. Sitting with good posture turn your head to the right side.
  2. Place your right finger tips on your left cheek.
  3. Apply a gentle pressure with your fingers to increase the stretch/rotation

Normal = able to rotate neck so that nose is almost in line with shoulder
Tight = unable to achieve alignment.

Other stretches to use:

2: Shoulders & Internal Rotators

A very important test that identifies tightness in the internal rotators of the shoulder. I really like to use this to measure my effectiveness of any rehabilitation program with shoulders and the neck as it is very easy to see the difference between the good arm and the bad arm. The pecs and the latissimus dorsi are both prone to stiffness and shortening from overworking due to their tonic design. When this happens it very easily disrupts the stability of the shoulder joint by pronating the humerous inwards. Failure to correct this will lead to shoulder and elbow problems.

You will often find the dominant hand is the tightest when placed behind the back.

How to Do the Test

  1. Standing in good upright posture, take right hand and reach behind your head. Attempt to touch the top corner of your scapular.
  2. Standing in good posture, reach behind your back with your right hand. Attempt to touch the bottom of the left scapular

Normal = can comfortably reach the top and bottom of your shoulder blades.

However, while this is a great test to use to measure your program effectiveness it is not good to use as a stretch or an exercise to correct the problem. I prefer to use a series of pec stretches and lat stretches to do this.

  • 3 Stretches for Pec Minor & Pec Major - Click here to see video
  • Lat Stretch - Click here to see video
  • Corrective Stability Exercise to follow up with - Depending on the person this may be a combination of rowing exercises and scapula stability. You can see more about this in this article - How to complete pulling exercises correctly

3: Shoulder Impingement Test

Shoulder impingement is one of the most common injuries and this is a very simple test to determine if there is a potential shoulder impingement. I regularly use this in a training session with clients to see if the work we are doing is helping. If it is helping I will continue with my strategy. If not I will change what I am doing.

What you are looking for when doing the test is 2 things

  1. If there was any pain? If there is pain then this confirms impingement is present and that the supraspinatus muscle is at risk of being torn
  2. How much difference between left and right shoulder?

How to do the test

  1. Stand in neutral position with feet together
  2. Get your hand and put it in the right shoulder
  3. Gently lift your elbow to the sky
  4. Repeat with the other side and note any difference
  • Trigger Point Work - I will regularly use trigger point tools to assist with improving this test. Click here to see a video of the Teres Major trigger point release.
  • Stability Correction - Serratus Anterior Wall Slides again is the perfect choice. Read the full article – Why I love the Serratus Anterior Wall Slides drill to see the various versions of this drill I might use.

4: Thoracic Mobility

This is the first of our big 3 areas to be aware of with mobility restrictions. The main function of the thoracic spine is to hold the rib cage, and protect the heart and lungs. It also provides 2 critical movements.

  1. Extension of the rib cage in order to lift our arms overhead.
  2. Rotation of the trunk for movements like walking, throwing a ball etc.

Loss of mobility in this area is a HUGE problem to both the shoulder and neck, and also the lumbar spine. These joints need the thoracic region to provide mobility in order to stabilize and keep the shoulder or lumbar spine safe from damage. You can read more about this complex interaction with the thoracic spine in this article - Why lack of thoracic mobility creates pain elsewhere

I need tests to identify the mobility of both of these movements for it is common to see mobility in one but not the other.

Thoracic Mobility EXTENSION Test

 

This test is very important to the health of the shoulder and neck and we use this to assess if you have lost the ability to extend your spine.

How to Do the Test

  1. Stand close to the wall with heels about 12 inches away.
  2. Gently pull in the belly button and roll the pelvis until the lower back is flat on the wall. 3. Now lift your arms, keeping your elbows straight above your head.

If you have ideal thoracic extension in the spine then you should be able to get your arms to vertical without any of the lower or upper back coming off the wall. If your back moves away from the wall you have lost normal range of motion.

This test does not work so well as a corrective exercise and I find greater success using floor based work and foam rolling of the thoracic spine to do this. The exercise at the 5:00 mark of this video is one of the easiest to use.

Thoracic Mobility ROTATION Tests

To test this area there is 2 parts that are very similar but highlight different areas where we look at the shoulder and the thoracic spine working together to provide movement. This first one is often associated with neck and shoulder problems. Both of the following tests are excellent to use as the corrective exercise.

Click here to see a video of the following tests.

Thoracic Mobility Upper Quadrant

How to Do the Test

  1. Sitting on the floor with your butt on your heels and one forearm on the floor
  2. Place the other hand behind your head.
  3. Now to try to rotate around as far as you can without your butt lifting off your heels.
  4. If you have pain or limited ability to move this indicates either stiffness in the scapula to provide core stability to the glenohumeral joint or the thoracic spine is stiff and unable to move.
  5. Make a note of any difference between left and right.

Thoracic Mobility Lower Quadrant

Sitting down in the similar position as the previous test but this time with your hand behind your back. This test often relates more to lower back and hip problems.

  1. Again try to rotate as far as you can without lifting off your heels.
  2. Make note of any difference between left and right.
  3. To make it easier to rotate further push hard into the floor with the hand on the ground. This creates greater stability allowing for more mobility.
  4. Make a note of any difference between right and left.
  5. Use as a corrective exercise if you are unable to come around to full 180 degrees.

At times I might also use a sitting test with a stick on the back as seen in the picture below. This is a much better choice for the person who cannot get on the floor or has a bulging disc back injury and the previous tests will easily aggravate their condition.

The person should be able to turn at least 50 degrees in both directions for this to be a pass. Often you will find one side is tight and hard to do and this will give you clues as to which side is the real problem. You will find the following hip mobility stretches will be linked to this.

  • Other mobility exercises to use - Click here to see a video of 6 exercises I like to use.
  • The Feldenkrais shoulder/spine integrator is a good choice for those with neck pain who find the tests above too hard to do - Click here to see video
  • Stability Corrections to use in combination - Click here to see a video that progresses from mobility to stability and then strength

Hip Mobility

This area is the number two on our hit-list of mobility concerns. It is also one of the most challenging areas of the body to assess and may require multiple tests depending on the person. This part of the body is involved in almost every movement we make, and a constant switching between mobility and stability is required in order for us to move efficiently free of pain and limitation.

The hips are designed to be very mobile and withstand both direct loading stresses and large rotational forces with weight-bearing activities, whereas the pelvis is more concerned with stability in order to preserve neutral alignment of the spine and lower limbs. This constant interaction between these two joints can very easily be disrupted by poor movement strategies or inactivity. When this happens we often see a loss of hip mobility first, as the body uses stiffness as its alternative to stability to protect the spine and pelvis from damage. Restoring it back to normal takes more than just one hip stretch.

First let’s start with the various tests to use.

The Thomas Test

This is a classic test to use for testing the length tension relationship of the anterior hip muscles. It is quite easy to do and can help confirm if there is a loss of hip flexibility causing excessive anterior pelvic tilt. It is not good as an exercise to use for correcting it however.

How to Do the Test

  1. Lie down on your back, at the very edge of the table, with both legs hanging freely.
  2. Flex the knee and pull it back to the chest as close as you can, using both arms while doing so. The other leg can hang down.
  3. The lumbar spine must remain flat and in contact with the table during the test.

The test is positive when:

  • You are unable to maintain their lower back and sacrum against the table
  • Hip has a large posterior tilt or hip extension greater than 15°
  • Knee unable to meet more than 80° flexion

Hip Internal & External Rotation Tests

These tests are usually performed by therapists with you lying flat on the table, but as you are completing this test by yourself this is the way I would do this. This will help to identify any loss of hip motion in a non-weight bearing position that may cause problems when you attempt to complete functional movements in a standing position. If you do have a friend with you, you could get them to use a goniometer to measure the angles of the following tests but this is not essential.

How to Do the Hip INTERNAL Rotation Test

  1. You need to sit on a bench with knees and feet together with your body in an upright posture and a neutral lumbar curve.
  2. Try to rotate the hip internally while keeping the knee flexed and once the furthest point is reached estimate make note of the angle you have achieved.
  3. Complete the same test with the other leg to compare.

Normal = 30 Degrees of internal rotation with no pain.

If you have a friend with you get them to observe if you have to hike your pelvis to achieve this range of motion.

How to Do the Hip EXTERNAL Rotation Test

  1. You need to sit on a bench with knees and feet together with your body in an upright posture and a neutral lumbar curve.
  2. Try to rotate the hip externally while keeping the knee flexed and once the furthest point is reached estimate make note of the angle you have achieved.
  3. Complete the same test with the other leg to compare.

Normal = 40 Degrees of internal rotation with no pain.

90/90 Hip Test

This is a great exercise to use for the person lacking a lot of mobility in the posterior muscles of the glutes. It is a great choice to begin with for it is much easier to get into position and does not cause as many problems as some of the more aggressive glute stretches do.

This stretch is great to use as a test and also as an exercise as opposed to the previous 3 tests that are good for measuring progress but not effective for correcting your problem.

How to Do the 90/90 Hip Stretch

  1. Sit on the floor with both the front and back legs bent to 90degrees. The angle at the groin should also be approximately 90 degrees. You may either hold a Swissball or place your hands on the ground to help keep your posture upright.
  2. Maintain neutral spinal position and bend forwards at the hips (tip your pelvis forward like pouring water out of the front of a bowl over your belt – this will increase the curve in your low back).

Click here to watch a video of this stretch. 

  • Other mobility exercises to use - There are a lot of ways to stretch the outer and posterior parts of the hip and it may take some experimentation to find the best version for your body. Foam rolling may also be very useful in getting rid of trigger points and fascial tightness. I suggest to read this article that shows you many versions to try - 10 Best Hip Mobility Exercises
  • Stability Corrections to use in combination - Again there really is a lot of things you will need to explore here and you may find there is several things to do in combination with the stretches. Often the ROMANIAN DEADLIFT is a great exercise to use in combination with these but some people will need a series of simple exercises to assist any loss of internal and external rotation.
  • Read this article for more ideas on this -  Best hip and pelvic stability exercises

Quadriceps/Hip Stretch Test

I prefer the kneeling Swissball stretch to all others for the quads for it forces you to find the correct pelvic position in addition to optimal knee flexion. In many cases the Rectus Femoris is tight at the top near the hips and not the knee. And because it is a muscle that crosses two joints (hip and knee) it can have an effect on both if it is tight at either end. Many people think their quads are fine if they stretch them standing up, yet in the kneeling Swissball stretch they can barely sit up!

This stretch works great as a test and also as a corrective exercise.

How to Do the Quadriceps Test

  1. Begin in a sprinters start position with the foot and ankle of the leg to be stretched on the ball.
  2. Slowly rise upward draw your belly button inward and roll your pelvis under so that your back flattens to increase the stretch.
  3. You may place one hand on the ball or a chair for support.

Normal = you can sit up comfortably and grab the ball with both hands
Tight = you are unable to sit up tall without discomfort.

  • Corrective Stability Exercise to use in combination - VMO integrated strengthening exercises. Click here to read the full article on this that features several ideas of how to do this.

Hamstrings

Another really confusing area to assess and can easily be confused as poor hamstring mobility when it is really poor hip stability. For a person to have "true short and tight hamstrings", they need to be in posterior pelvic tilt when in a relaxed posture. You can see this if they lay flat on the floor, or stand against a wall and there is no gap between the floor and their lower back.

But even still sometimes this can be a hip problem and not a hamstring problem.

These people usually can't tell the difference between moving their hip and moving their lower back. This is known as poor hip/pelvis disassociation. This is obvious when you ask them to lift one knee when standing as seen in the pictures below and instead of holding a good spinal position (left) they will instantly tuck their butt under and round out at the lower back (right).

Also in a squat they tend to roll into a ball very early and cannot maintain spinal curvature. This person is always a high risk for a bulging disc for this reason.

The common tests people use is the sit and reach test or touching their toes. Both of these tests are unreliable as a hamstring assessment and this is why.

  • Insufficient posterior weight shift backward— If you’re unable to shift your posterior weight backward as the upper body half of your body leans down and forward, your hamstrings will contract to prevent you from losing balance and falling forward. In this case, the hamstrings are merely acting as parking brakes to stop you from hurting yourself.
  • Stiff lower back— These people are locked in extension and this is where the hip problems are more present
  • Stiff thoracic spine—similarly, stiffness in the cervical and thoracic spine can also limit the distance someone can reach toward the floor.
  • Increased tension in the calf muscles —Poor toe touch skill often shows increased tension in the calf muscles. Tension here will almost always be felt in the hamstrings as a result.

All of these are factors that can make the toe touching assessment or sit and reach test appear to be tight hamstrings when in fact it is something else entirely. You may be stretching the hamstrings and leaving the real problem unattended.

I suggest to read the detailed article about the hamstrings in this article - Why hamstrings are mistakenly blamed for injury and dysfunction

What stretches would I use if I was on my own? There are 2 versions I might try being the lying stretch and also a variation of the toe touching drill. Firstly here is the lying stretch.

How to Do the Passive Lying Hamstring Stretch

  1. Lay on your back with one hand under your low back at belt level or with a partner to assist you.
  2. With your opposite leg, hold your leg just below your knee and bring your leg up with a bent knee. Aim to get your hip at a 90 degree angle.
  3. Begin to slowly straighten your knee until you feel a comfortable stretch.
  4. You must not your butt off the ground to achieve full range of motion.

Normal = leg can reach 90* without lower back lifting off the floor.
Tight = leg cannot reach 90* and/or back lifts off floor.

This is great to use as a test and as a corrective exercise. The Romanian Deadlift would also be the best exercise to assist in improving flexibility and stability of the hip at the same time.

An active hamstring leg raise is the same exercise but looks at the ability of the person to lift their leg with no assistance. This is more of a hip stability and strength test than a true hamstring stretch but it does give some information relating to hip dysfunction.

Good strength on this test requires the person to achieve 70 degrees.

The second stretch involves a variation of the toe touch drill. As I said earlier I do not rely on the normal test as a good indicator of hamstring flexibility but I may use this version for a person with hip or lower limb issues limited to one side and can complete a deadlift correctly.

This test highlights a pelvic imbalance that is only seen when performed unilaterally and can be easily missed in other tests.

How to Do the Single Leg Toe Touch Test

  1. Stand with one leg on a step and the knee of this leg bent
  2. Slowly straighten the leg on the floor and place both hands on top of each other as you reach down to touch your toes.
  3. Keep your elbows straight and palms together.
  4. Observe the difference between left and right paying close attention to the hip movement.

For additional mobility and stability corrections I would refer to the article - Understanding anterior pelvic tilt to see a stack of exercises and drills to correct a truly tight hamstring. Remember a person with tight hamstrings is stuck in posterior tilt and exercises that develop the anterior tilt will be essential to restore balance.

Ankle Mobility

This is the last of our big 3 areas of mobility restrictions to focus on.

Dorsiflexion is something we all tend to take for granted in daily life and in sport and trust me you can ask the people with walking impairments how hard it is to walk when your foot does not do this. The common chain reaction from loss of ankle mobility is often seen easily with the feet moving into excessive pronation, otherwise known as flat feet. As the person begins to try and move with this excessive pronation and flat feet, a chain reaction of new problems is beginning to surface.

The next step results in the knee tending to turn inwards on the tibia, producing an exaggerated quadriceps angle (Q angle) that now exposes the knee joint to injury. This is where patella tracking, ITB friction syndrome and ACL injuries happen. Lastly the poor position of the lower limb then in turn creates strength deficits in glute strength and control at the hip.

You can read a lot more about ankle mobility and see several versions of ankle exercises in this article - Why ankle mobility can cause a chain reaction of injuries and pain

The best test to use is the simple knee to wall stretch.

How to Do the Knee to Wall Stretch Test

  1. Kneeling on the floor in front of a wall with the stiff ankle the (front) leg
  2. Slowly try to move your foot back as far as possible, while still being able to dorsiflex with the heel on the ground so the knee touches the wall in front.
  3. The foot should point directly ahead and the knee should move directly over this.

Results: The distance from great toe (the end of the big toe) to wall is measured.
8-10cm is considered normal.

This is also great to use as a corrective exercise although I do find the following mobility drill tends to work a bit better with most people.

Band Assisted Ankle Dorsiflexion

This is my favourite drill to use and one I love to do between squatting exercises.
To do this is very similar to the wall test you did earlier. All you need to add is a rubber tubing around the ankle itself. This forces greater foot stability that actually helps unlock a tight ankle.

Click here to watch a video of this.

  • Stability exercises to use in combination - You will need to work on a series of foot stability drills and single leg stance exercises to enhance the mobility of the ankle. Read this article - Exercise solutions for weak feet to see several examples of this.

Do You Need More Help?

Before jumping straight into any type of corrective program make sure you have seen a qualified Health professional for an accurate diagnosis and assessment of your condition. I cannot stress this enough as self-diagnosing can potentially lead to more problems. We often refer out to Doctors, Chiropractors, and Physiotherapists before implementing our program to know exactly what we are dealing with. Being certain on where to start is crucial to the success of the program.

If you have seen a health professional and are now looking at implementing a series of exercises and stretches this article will provide you with many great ideas on how to do this. As many people struggle to implement this into a gradual progression I created some detailed step by step programs for the most common injuries to the back, knee, and shoulder that you can instantly download below.

   

Summary

Well there you have a stack of ways to not only test your mobility but also correct any restrictions you may have. Always remember the golden rule of stretching only what is tight. The big 3 areas you really want to spend a lot of time with are the thoracic, hips, and ankle. And lastly you MUST follow up a stretch or mobility exercise with a stability and movement correction in order for the body to learn how to move without the stiffness. This would be the biggest mistake people make with stretching or doing endless Yoga sessions to loosen up but not ensuring they have adequate stability to move with this new found mobility.

For more ideas and information on specific topics I may not have covered in detail be sure to check out our INDEX PAGE on the website that has over 200 of our best articles. These are all sorted into categories for quick reference so you can find what you are after more easily.

If you do need specific help with your exercise program please feel free to reach out to me for help and we can set you up with your individualised program.

About The Author

Nick Jack is owner of No Regrets Personal Training and has over 16 years’ experience as a qualified Personal Trainer, Level 2 Rehabilitation trainer, CHEK practitioner, and Level 2 Sports conditioning Coach. Based in Melbourne Australia he specialises in providing solutions to injury and health problems for people of all ages using the latest methods of assessing movement and corrective exercise.

References:

  • Functional Anatomy of the Pelvis and the Sacroiliac Joint - By John Gibbons
  • Muscle testing & function - By Kendall, McCreary, Provance, Rogers, Romani
  • The Vital Glutes - By John Gibbons
  • Movement - By Gray Cook
  • Corrective Exercise Solutions - by Evan Osar
  • Back Pain Mechanic - by Dr Stuart McGill
  • Diagnosis & Treatment Of Movement Impairment Syndromes - By Shirley Sahrman
  • Low Back Disorders - by Dr Stuart McGill
  • Ultimate Back Fitness & Performance - by Dr Stuart McGill
  • Core Stability - by Peak Performance
  • Athletic Body in Balance - by Gray Cook
  • Anatomy Trains - by Thomas Meyers
  • Motor Learning and Performance - By Richard A Schmidt and Timothy D Lee
  • Assessment & Treatment Of Muscle Imbalance - By Vladimir Janda
  • How To Eat, Move & Be Healthy by Paul Chek
  • Scientific Core Conditioning Correspondence Course - By Paul Chek
  • Advanced Program Design - By Paul Chek
  • Twist Conditioning Sports Strength - By Peter Twist
  • Twist Conditioning Sports Movement - By Peter Twist